Audio Illusions Discussion

Audio Illusions Discussion

In chapter 3 you learned about sensation and perception, the various components of the sense organs, and how they work in ultimately helping us make sense of the world [course outcome #2].

You have two choices for discussion in this post–one which focuses on vision or one which focuses on hearing. In your initial post, clearly indicate which option you chose.

Audio Illusions


Option 1:

1.) Above is a picture of a neon sign. Notice how the flight of the bird is simulated by the neon lights.

2.) Using your knowledge about sensation and perception, briefly explain in your own words what is happening in this phenomenon to give us the perception of movement. Be sure to integrate information from the textbook and lecture notes.

3.) Describe what aspects of this phenomenon are sensation and which are perception and why.

4.) What aspects of which sense organs are involved in the phenomenon?

5.) Which aspects of the phenomenon do you think are best described by bottom-up (data-based) processing and which by top-down (knowledge-based) and why?

Option 2:

1.) view this video: Will This Trick Your Ears? (Audio Illusions)

2.) Using your knowledge about sensation and perception, briefly explain in your own words what is happening in the auditory phenomena in the video. Be sure to integrate information from the textbook and lecture notes.

3.) Describe what aspects of this phenomenon are sensation and which are perception and why.

4.) What aspects of which sense organs are involved in the phenomenon?

5.) Which aspects of the phenomenon do you think are best described by bottom-up (data-based) processing and which by top-down (knowledge-based) and why?

***Your initial post should answer those questions in approximately 200 words or more.***

Below I will paste chapter 3 summary concepts

LO 1 Define sensation and perception and explain how they are different.

Sensation is the manner in which physical stimuli are received and detected. Perception is the process of giving meaning to sensations. Bottom-up processing describes how the brain takes in basic sensory information and processes this incoming stimuli. Top-down processing uses past experiences and knowledge in order to understand sensory information.

LO 2 Define transduction and explain how it relates to sensation.

Sensory organs receive stimuli from the environment (for example, sound waves, light energy). Transduction is the transformation of stimuli into electrical and chemical signals. The neural signals are then processed by the central nervous system, resulting in what we consciously experience as sensations.

LO 3 Describe and differentiate between absolute thresholds and difference thresholds.

One of the important goals of studying sensation and perception is to determine absolute thresholds, the weakest stimuli that can be detected 50% of the time. Difference thresholds indicate the minimum difference between two stimuli noticed 50% of the time. According to Weber’s law, certain ratios determine these difference thresholds. The ability to detect weak signals in the environment is based on many factors.

LO 4 Summarize the properties of light and color, and describe the structure and function of the eye.

The eyes do not sense faces, objects, or scenery; they detect light, which is a form of electromagnetic energy. The light we see (visible light) comprises one small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, which also includes gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet light, infrared light, microwaves, and radio waves. The color, or hue, of visible light is determined by its wavelength. Apart from their hue, colors can be characterized by brightness (intensity) and saturation (purity). When light first enters the eye, it passes through a glassy outer layer known as the cornea. Then it travels through a hole called the pupil, followed by the lens. Both the cornea and the lens focus the incoming light waves, and the lens can change shape in order to adjust to objects near and far. Finally, the light travels through the eye’s jellylike center and reaches the retina, where it is transduced into neural activity.

LO 5 Describe the functions of rods and cones.

Rods are photoreceptors in the retina that are extremely sensitive to light and enable us to see in dim lighting. Rods do not provide the sensation of color. Cones, also in the retina, are responsible for our sensation of color and our ability to see the details of objects. Cones are not used when ambient light is low. Cones are concentrated in the fovea.

LO 6 Compare and contrast the theories of color vision.

The trichromatic theory of color vision suggests there are three types of cones, each sensitive to particular wavelengths in the red, green, and blue spectrums. The three types of cones fire in response to different electromagnetic wavelengths. The opponent-process theory of color vision suggests that in addition to the color-sensitive cones, we also have neurons that respond differently to opponent colors. These colors cannot be viewed simultaneously (for example, red–green, blue–yellow).

LO 7 Summarize how sound waves are converted into the sensation of hearing.

Audition is the term used for the sense of hearing. When we hear, we are sensing sound waves, which are rhythmic vibrations of molecules traveling through a variety of forms of matter (including air). The cochlea is a fluid-filled, snail-shaped organ of the inner ear. When the oval window vibrates, it causes the fluid in the cochlea to move. The cochlea is lined with the basilar membrane, which contains hair cells. When the fluid moves, the hair cells lining the basilar membrane bend in response. The hair cells cause the nerve cells nearby to fire, sending neural messages through the auditory nerve to the auditory cortex via the thalamus.

Audio Illusions

LO 8 Illustrate how we sense different pitches of sound.

Place theory suggests that the location of neural activity along the cochlea allows us to sense different pitches of high-frequency sounds. With a high-frequency sound, vibrations occur closer to the end of the basilar membrane near the oval window. Frequency theory suggests that the frequency of the neural impulses determines the experience of pitch. The entire basilar membrane vibrates at the same rate as the sound wave; the neural impulses occur at this same rate. The frequency theory explains how we perceive the pitch of sounds from 20 Hz to 400 Hz. The volley principle explains our perception of the different pitches between 400 Hz and 4,000 Hz. And, the place theory explains our perception of pitches from 4,000 Hz to 20,000 Hz.

LO 9 Describe the process of olfaction.

The chemical sense referred to as olfaction provides the sensation of smell. Molecules from odor-emitting objects in our environments make their way into our nostrils up through the nose or mouth. The olfactory epithelium is home to millions of olfactory receptor neurons, which provide receptors for odor molecules. When enough odor molecules bind to the receptor neuron, a signal is sent to the brain.

LO 10 Discuss the structures involved in taste and describe how they work.

Gustation is the sense of taste. The receptor cells for taste are located in the taste buds, which are embedded in the papillae on the tongue, as well as in the roof of the mouth and inside the mouth on the cheeks. Each taste bud contains 50 to 100 taste receptor cells; taste molecules bind onto these cells. Taste is essential to the survival of species. Tastes push organisms toward needed foods and away from harmful ones.

LO 11 Explain how the biopsychosocial perspective helps us understand pain.

The biopsychosocial perspective explains the perception of pain by exploring biological, psychological, and social factors. This multilevel method examines how these factors play a role in the experience of pain. According to the gate-control theory, a person’s perception of pain can increase or decrease depending on how the brain interprets pain signals. Neural activity makes its way to the brain, where it is processed. The brain is capable of blocking pain by sending a message through the interneurons to “close the gate” so the pain won’t be felt.

LO 12 Illustrate how we sense the position and movement of our bodies.

Kinesthesia is the sense of position and movement of the body. We know how our body parts are oriented in space because of specialized nerve endings called proprio-ceptors, which are primarily located in the muscles and joints. Our proprioceptors monitor changes in the position of body parts and the tension in our muscles. The vestibular sense helps us deal with the effects of gravity, movement, and body position to keep us balanced.

Audio IllusionsLO 13 Identify the principles of perceptual organization.

Gestalt psychologists sought to explain how the human mind organizes stimuli from the environment. They realized the whole is greater than the sum of its parts, meaning the brain naturally organizes stimuli as a whole rather than parts and pieces. Gestalt indicates a tendency for human perception to be organized and complete. The organizational principles include: proximity, similarity, connectedness, closure, and continuity.

LO 14 Describe some of the visual cues used in depth perception.

Depth perception appears partially to be an innate ability. Children in the visual cliff experiment, for example, refuse to move toward what they perceive to be a drop-off. Binocular cues use information gathered from both eyes to help judge depth and distance. Monocular cues can be used by either eye alone and also help judge depth and distance.

LO 15 Define extrasensory perception and explain why psychologists dismiss claims of its legitimacy.

Extrasensory perception (ESP) is the purported ability to obtain information about the world without any sensory stimuli. The study of these kinds of phenomena is called parapsychology. There is no scientific evidence to back up claims of ESP and other parapsychology phenomena.

If you need anything else let me know, Thanks

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