Psychology in The Family of Origin Mental Disorders
Running head: A CASE STUDY OF PSYCHOLOGY IN THE FAMILY OF ORIGIN A case of Study of Psychology in the Family of Origin Name: Institutional Affiliation: 1 A CASE STUDY OF PSYCHOLOGY IN THE FAMILY OF ORIGIN 2 A Case Study of Psychology in the Family of Origin Literature Review Introduction Psychological disorders and some disorientations can be traced back to the origin of the family. Thus, many youths suffer from psychological disorders yet they are not aware of the causes. However, several studies seek to understand the level of mental health awareness in each family because mental disorders create high concerns for the families. For instance, several studies have traced back to the origin of the family some mental disorders that have occurred in several generational lineages. Children in most cases as they grow tend to be exposed to developmental issues that might later culminate into a mental health problem. Therefore, the literature review will seek to analyze the contents of psychological disorder and the family tree lineage, the levels of mental health and the impact of the same in the mental development of the youth. Discussion Parental Traits Morris, Gabert-Quillen, & Delahanty, (2012) posits that there is a link between parental PTSD symptoms and their children’s PTSD symptoms. The author further explains the relationship between a parent symptom and that of the children by showing the factors that contribute to the downside effects of the same. Morris, Gabert-Quillen, & Delahanty, (2012) further explores their studies using persons exposed to stress and trauma to ascertain the effect it had on their children. The resultant effect is that there is an association between parental PTSD and a child PTSS. However, the study using a metanalysis design seeks to prove the issue of trauma and how it can affect the family. Nonetheless, there is also the correlation between male and female association with PTSD and how it can vary as per the individual. However, there are several limitations that the study presupposes. In the context of family systems, Datchi-Phillips (2011) notes that there is a premise that personality is not static. Thus, with family systems Datchi-Phillips (2011) assert that there is a high chance that family interactions play a vital role in ensuring that family processes in relation to functions create some relations. The relations further create some sense of autonomy and distance which is a result of interpersonal patterns in that given family. There is a level to which family relations contribute to the wellbeing of a child of which Datchi-Phillips (2011) further A CASE STUDY OF PSYCHOLOGY IN THE FAMILY OF ORIGIN 3 gives directions on the same longitudinal studies. Lastly, the author concludes by noting that several interactional sequences can affect how family relations function and therefore, whether the family relations are harmonious or not needs to be understood at all costs. Notably, youth perception of parental criticism can be associated with depression and in most cases, it is the parents who exhibit this trait. If there is a perceived criticism, then the parents are the ones who are responsible and this may hurt the relationship between parents and the youths. Therefore, Rapp et al., (2020) using the regression model found out that there is strong parental criticism in follow-ups that lasted after 18months. Further on, when parental criticism is perceived as high then, there is an elevated depression and the trend is set to project high. This study is evidence that there is a high chance that self-reported criticism is not measurable compared to traditional ones which are more nonverbal and verbal ones. From the study, there is a shred of conclusive evidence that parental criticism is the main predictor of youth depression, especially in youth tested over 18 months. Psychological Therapies and Treatments Additionally, the study conducted by Conoley, et al (2015) creates an aura of the use of family therapy to promote wellness and the use of positive psychology to bring change that is non-pathologizing. Conoley, et al (2015) notes that the extensive use of positive psychology in family therapy can help solve some of the problems associated with low attendance in the family sessions. Nonetheless, there are the use of family interactions that spark some form of good therapy. Families that use this technique have reportedly benefited and grown to be existential in the end. Therefore, positive psychology is a good tool that can be used to ensure that there is a smooth transition in matters concerning families. The study uses various therapy such as the communication theory which is an effective way that families can use to enhance communication. Thus, the works of Conoley, et al (2015) can be used to explain some of the features used in positive psychology and that the use of this technique can benefit families of children with have psychological problems. Objectively, Smith et al., (2007) note that the use of CBT for effective treatment of PTSD is on the rise in children and young people. Family lineage is one of the factors that strive to create unity in many cases, however, when trauma occurs then the best therapy should be CBT. Smith et al., (2007) further note that traumatic incidences can happen while children are at home or even during family activities. Thus, when such incidences occur it can only be right to fully A CASE STUDY OF PSYCHOLOGY IN THE FAMILY OF ORIGIN 4 engage experts in analysis and better treatment regimes. Moreover, CBT has been known to be efficient in the treatment of PTSD and other forms of academic and social functioning. Family Conflicts and Adolescent Behaviors Cummings, Koss, & Davies, (2015) assert that family conflicts are the number one precursors of adolescent behaviors. The existence of anxiety, depression, and emotional insecurity are some of the problems that emanate from family conflicts and which affects the overall structure of wellness in an adolescent. Therefore, there is a high-risk behavioral trait that starts and develops in adolescent children. Nonetheless, the family system is some of the binding factors that may be the cause of conflict and further investigation proves that the family system does inflict some form of problem in children. Lastly, Cummings, Koss, & Davies, (2015) notes that there are some limitations in the study as there is no extensive research on the effects of family systems and the extent to which they impact adolescents. Likewise, Dorahy et al (2015) outline the problems of dissociation and the corresponding psychiatric symptoms associated with DD (dissociative disorder). The study further outlines the issues of some complex PTSD. From the study, several presumptions were found in that there are some corresponding traits between self-relationship. Relationships and the fear of committing to one are emanating from the shame and PTSD symptoms. Thus, dissociation and shame are some of the specific markers that impact relationships in patients with a history of neglect and abuse. Alfieri et al., (2016) note that there is a high level of relationship associated with parentchild affectionate relationships. The overall relationship and success of parent-child will greatly affect how adolescents take on their major tasks. One of the major risk factors in adolescents is how they present themselves in risky behaviors and how they can formulate long-lasting close relationships with others. Therefore, the study further shows that there is a high need for fostering relationships that foster quality family relations. Likewise, Iafrate, Donato, & Bertoni, (2013) notes the effective use of parental experience and how they shape the future couple relationship. Further on, if the family heritage is promoted then the well-being of the partners can be experienced thereby resulting in a satisfying relationship in couples. Nonetheless, Alfieri & Lanz (2015) in their study n family relationship use SEM (structural equation modeling) which is considerate of dyadic relationships. The study further tries to differentiate the efforts made by ensuring that companionship and family dimension is key in companionship. Similarly, the negative affective state of shame can elevate dissociation in A CASE STUDY OF PSYCHOLOGY IN THE FAMILY OF ORIGIN most cases as McKeogh, Dorahy, & Yogeeswaran, (2018) notes in their study. Therefore, the results are that shame occurs when there is a dissociative between friends and not a family experience. Thereby, there is a need to do further research on family trees and how the lineage can affect the personal wellbeing of adolescents and possibly their future families. Part 2: Reflection on Research Questions 1. What are some of the family traits that can lead to PTSD and other psychological disorders based on family relationships? 2. Can intergenerational inheritance be proved to be the root cause of some psychological disorders, and what developmental problems do these mental disorders cause to children’? If yes, what are some of those disorders? If no, then what causes functional families to produce children who are not emotionally independent? 3. Can stress-related disorder in family lineage be attested to be the root cause of some of the psychological disorders that cause family units to be dysfunctional? The questions above can be justified as the means to provide a good relationship with the study as they represent familial traits in the family. Moreover, there is a high chance that when the questions above are answered, the study will be complete. Based on the literature review above, there is a high chance that there is a need to further develop psychological studies based on family traits. Also, the study will seek to test the hypothesis whether PTSD in parents can be transferred to children unknowingly and therefore be the causal factor of high-risk behavior in adolescences. Moreover, the study will seek to find the relationship between high-risk parental behaviors and that of their offspring’s when they get married or into relationships. 5 A CASE STUDY OF PSYCHOLOGY IN THE FAMILY OF ORIGIN 6 References Alfieri, S., & Lanz, M. (2015). The measurement of family relationships: Individual, dyadic, and family dimensions of relational construct and their implication for family members. Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, 22(2), 251-267. Alfieri, S., Ranieri, S., Tagliabue, S., Pozzi, M., Lanz, M., & Marta, E. (2016). I FEEL GOOD AT HOME AND WITH MYSELF: HOW DOES DYADIC COMPANIONSHIP WITHIN THE FAMILY AFFECT ADOLESCENTS’WELL-BEING? Rivista internazionale di scienze sociali, 3-19.’ Conoley, C. W., Plumb, E. W., Hawley, K. J., Spaventa-Vancil, K. Z., & Hernández, R. J. (2015). Integrating positive psychology into family therapy: Positive family therapy. The Counseling Psychologist, 43(5), 703-733. Cummings, E. M., Koss, K. J., & Davies, P. T. (2015). Prospective relations between family conflict and adolescent maladjustment: Security in the family system as a mediating process. Journal of abnormal child psychology, 43(3), 503-515. Datchi-Phillips, C. (2011). Family systems (the relational contexts of individual symptoms). In the Initial Psychotherapy Interview (pp. 249-264). Elsevier. Dorahy, M. J., Middleton, W., Seager, L., McGurrin, P., Williams, M., & Chambers, R. (2015). Dissociation, shame, complex PTSD, child maltreatment and intimate relationship selfconcept in dissociative disorder, chronic PTSD, and mixed psychiatric groups. Journal of affective disorders, 172, 195-203. Iafrate, R., Donato, S., & Bertoni, A. M. M. (2013). Family of origin heritage, individual wellbeing, and relationship satisfaction in young couples. A CASE STUDY OF PSYCHOLOGY IN THE FAMILY OF ORIGIN 7 McKeogh, K., Dorahy, M. J., & Yogeeswaran, K. (2018). The activation of shame following dissociation in the context of relationships: A vignette study. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 59, 48-55. Morris, A., Gabert-Quillen, C., & Delahanty, D. (2012). The association between parent PTSD/depression symptoms and child PTSD symptoms: A meta-analysis. Journal of pediatric psychology, 37(10), 1076-1088. Rapp, A. M., Chavira, D. A., Sugar, C. A., & Asarnow, J. R. (2020). Incorporating family factors into treatment planning for adolescent depression: Perceived parental criticism predicts longitudinal symptom trajectory in the Youth Partners in Care trial. Journal of Affective Disorders, 278, 46-53. Smith, P., Yule, W., Perrin, S., Tranah, T., Dalgleish, T. I. M., & Clark, D. M. (2007). Cognitivebehavioral therapy for PTSD in children and adolescents: a preliminary randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(8), 1051-1061. …
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