Staffing Organizations

Staffing Organizations



Learning Objectives for Chapter 5

Engage in strategic recruitment planning activities

Understand the difference between open and targeted recruitment

Create a persuasive communication message

Learn about a variety of recruitment media

Recognize how applicant reactions influence the effectiveness of a recruiting plan

Utilize a variety of recruitment sources

Evaluate recruiting based on established metrics




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External Recruitment

Strategic Recruitment Planning



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Planning, Communicating, and Implementing Strategic Recruiting

Jump to Planning, Communicating, and Implementing Strategic Recruiting, Appendix

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Defining Strategic Recruiting Goals

Goals for attraction

Based on organization’s strategic goals

Person-job fit

Person-organization fit

Goals for speed

Need new employees right away

Long-term needs



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Open Versus Targeted Recruiting

Recruitment Type Technique Advantages Best When
Open Advertising position with a message appealing to a wide variety of job seekers in a variety of media outlets that will reach the highest possible audience Ensures that a diverse set of applicants are contacted and considered Lower resource and personnel cost per applicant located Large numbers of applicants are required Pre-entry qualifications are not as important
Targeted Focusing advertising and recruiting efforts by tailoring message content to attract segments of the labor market with specific KSAOs or demographic characteristics Narrows the pool of potential applicants, allowing the organization to concentrate efforts on the most qualified Facilitates a more personal approach to each applicant The organization needs specific skill sets that are in short supply Hiring for high-leverage positions

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Open Versus Targeted Recruiting

Open Recruitment: With an open recruitment approach, organizations cast a wide net to identify potential applicants for specific job openings. Very little effort is made in segmenting the market into applicants with the most desirable KSAOs. This approach is very passive in that anyone can apply for an opening, and all who apply for a position are considered, regardless of their qualifications

A targeted recruitment approach is one whereby the organization identifies segments in the labor market where qualified candidates are likely to be. Often, this is done to find applicants with specific characteristics pertinent to person/job or person/organization match



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Target Recruitment Groups

Key KSAO holders—the objective here is to identify applicants with specific new areas of knowledge or “hot” skills

Diverse job seekers—often, one must go beyond open recruitment and make special efforts to reach diverse groups

Passive job seekers or non-candidates—sometimes excellent candidates can be found in “trailing spouses” or other dual-career couples

Former military personnel—especially those with key competencies such as leadership

Employment-discouraged—long-term unemployed, homemakers, welfare recipients, teenagers, and people with disabilities

Reward-seekers—those who are attracted to the organization’s employee value proposition, which might offer benefits such as flexible work schedules and fully paid health care

Former employees—those with good track records while they were employees

Reluctant applicants—individuals who have interest in an organization but are conflicted; research shows that flexible work arrangements may help attract such individuals



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External Recruitment

Applicant Reactions



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Applicant Reactions

Job and organization characteristics

The most important attraction features

Job characteristics


Opportunity for growth and development

Interesting characteristics

Organization characteristics


Reputation for treating employees well




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Applicant Reactions

Reactions to recruiters

Influence of recruiter vs. job characteristics

Influence of recruiter on attitudes and behaviors

Demographics of recruiters

Influential recruiter behaviors

Warmth and knowledge of the job

Reactions to recruitment process

Relationship of screening devices to job

Delay times in recruitment process

Funding of recruitment process

Credibility of recruiter during recruitment process




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Reactions to Diversity Issues

Advertising in publications targeted at women and minorities

Advertisements should depict diversity, especially among those in positions of authority

Target older workers by flexible schedules, health and pension benefits, and part-time opportunities




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Consideration Related to Recruiters: Selection

Desirable characteristics of recruiters

Strong interpersonal skills

Knowledge about company, jobs, and career-related issues

Technology skills


Various sources of recruiters

HR professionals

Line managers





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External Recruitment




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Comparing Choice of Messages

Types of Messaging Information Conveyed Applicant Reactions Potential Drawback Best For
Branded An appealing description is developed based on marketing principles, emphasizing unique features of the organization Positive view of the organization, increased intention to apply for jobs, and better prehire information about benefits of the job Overly positive message may result in employee dissatisfaction after hire Tight labor markets or higher-value jobs
Targeted Advertising themes are designed to a attract a specific set of employees Better fit between application message and specific applicant groups May dissuade applicants who aren’t interested in work attributes featured in the message from applying Specific KSAOs, or seeking a specific type of applicant
Realistic Both positive and negative aspects of a job and organization are described Some applicants self-select out; those who remain will have a better understanding of the job and will be less likely to leave The best potential applicants may be more likely to leave Loose labor markets or when turnover is costly


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Designing Communication to External Recruiting

Designing the communication message will require developing a message that is effective from a marketing standpoint in attracting applicants, targeted from the organization’s perspective in attracting applicants with the right KSAOs, and constructed well from a legal perspective so that no violation or employment laws and regulations occurs. The message should reflect the content of the job requirements and job rewards matrices. It should have a style that reflects the level and availability of the focal job. For example, realistic messages may be appropriate when supply of the employees being sought is great. An attractive message might be more advisable when labor supply is tight. It is recommended that, if the organization has access to legal counsel, the message receive a legal review before being used




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Searching: Communication Media

Media richness

Allow for timely personal feedback

Provide ample information

Customized to user needs








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Communication Media

Arranged from lowest richness and credibility to highest richness and credibility


Recruitment brochures

Organizational websites


Direct contact

Richer, more credible sources tend to be the most expensive per applicant contacted





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Features of High-Impact Organizational Websites

Easily navigated

A “job cart” function

Résumé builders

Detailed information on career opportunities

Clear graphics

Allow applicants to create profiles

Self-assessment inventories





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Communication Media


Personally known to the potential applicant

Largely outside of the organization’s control

Heavily involved with the reputation of the organization




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Advantages of conveying a realistic recruitment message as opposed to portraying the job in a way that the organization thinks that job applicants want to hear

The realistic message contains details regarding both the negative and the positive aspects of the job, and many HR specialists feel this is the optimal type of message for a number of reasons.

The realistic message conveys the most detailed and accurate information about the actual nature of the job, which greatly increases the amount of self-selection that will occur on the part of the potential applicants.

Even for applicants who continue through the recruitment process are likely to have expectations more in line with what actual job conditions are likely to be. This will enhance retention and long-term commitment, and reduce the potential for legal problems that might occur because an employees feels the “real” job is not as advertised.




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Advantages of conveying a realistic recruitment message as opposed to portraying the job in a way that the organization thinks that job applicants want to hear

Effective self-selection saves the organization money because time and funds are not expended on applicants who would not truly be satisfied with the conditions of the focal job.

In today’s society, where individuals are also putting more emphasis on their own values, advertisements that portray the job in a way that the organization “thinks that job applicants want to hear” are probably dangerous from a legal point-of-view, and wasteful in terms of the poor hires that result from such an approach.





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Advantages of conveying a realistic recruitment message as opposed to portraying the job in a way that the organization thinks that job applicants want to hear

The best advertisement will use professional marketing techniques in writing ad copy so that the following occur: 1. the ad presents the positive attributes of the job in an attractive way; 2. negative attributes appear later in the ad and are presented in a straightforward and honest fashion; 3. the ad is written to match the KSAOs and motivation required by the organization to a personality and skill profile of the type of applicants the organization hopes to attract.




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Advantages of conveying a realistic recruitment message as opposed to portraying the job in a way that the organization thinks that job applicants want to hear

As an example of how to handle a negative attribute, consider the negative attribute of extensive travel. An advertisement should not contain this attribute in the headline. It would probably appear in the middle of the body of the ad, or second or third among a list of job attributes. It might also be combined with positive attributes.

For example, in advertising position for direct sales personnel, the advertisement might read: “Since extensive overnight travel is required for this position, Organization XYZ seeks experienced sales professionals who are able to work independently and are skilled in self-organization and time management.” This statement identifies the negative attribute, but it also solicits applicants with positive characteristics for the job of sales.




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External Recruitment

Strategy Implementation



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Strategy Implementation

Individual recruiting sources

Target individual job seekers, direct from the organization and its representatives

Applicant initiated, general employment websites, niche employment websites

Social recruiting sources

Rely on relationships that employees have with current employees or those who would endorse the company

Employee referrals, social networking sites, professional associations

Organizational recruiting sources

Access to a large number of similar applicants

Colleges and placement offices, employment agencies, executive search firms, social service agencies




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Metrics for Evaluating Recruiting Methods




Impact on HR Outcomes

Employee satisfaction

Job performance



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